Wilbur Lang Schramm:
Wilbur Schramm, known as the “father of communication studies,” organized and introduced communication studies in the United States. His early work became especially influential with the rise of communication technology and socio-economic development. Schramm first worked for the Associated Press, helping develop the idea of collaborative work between newspaper, radio, and television. He received a bachelor’s from Marietta College and at Harvard University a master’s degree in American civilization. In 1930 Schramm achieved his Ph.D. in English at the University of Iowa. At the University of Iowa, he founded the creative writing workshop.

His interests and works resulted in not only publications but the honor of receiving the award of the O. Henry Prize. The O. Henry Award is the only yearly award given to short stories of exceptional merit. The award is named after the American master of the form, O. Henry. The PEN/O. Henry Prize Stories is an annual collection of the year's twenty best stories published in U.S. and Canadian magazines, written in English. Schramm later, was the founder of the Institute for communications Research at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Also while at the University, Schramm in 1954 founded an interactive model, which was one of the first to alter the mathematical model of Shannon and Weaver. Schramm’s model focused on the two-way interchange of messages, from both sender and receiver. His book Mass Media and National Developmentwas published in 1964.
The SMCR Model, Schramm’s most notable accomplishment, shaped our understanding of the communication process today. The Model was linear shaped with a one-way flow of information to the audience. Through any mass communication, whether it be newspapers, radio, TV, or the internet, the sender and receiver are perceived as the main sources of communication.

  1. http://www.shkaminski.com/Classes/Handouts/Communication
  2. http://www.itmonline.com/ProgramLibrary/Schramm
  3. http://histsoc.stanford.edu/pdfmem/SchrammW.pdf