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Broadcast Decency Enforcement Act of 2005
133 Years of Telephone Technology
Advances in Advertising
Advertising on Social Media
Black Box Fallacy
cell phone - adverstising and cell phones
Center for Media and Democracy
Collage, Artists, and Art Works
Communication in Video Games
Computer avatars and alternate identities
digital millenium copyright act of 1998
Dr. Eric Jenkins
Effect vs. Cultivation
Electronic Frontier Foundation
Famous Collage Pieces
Federal Communications Commission
Gender and Race Influences Comment
George P. Landow
Grassroots Digital Storytelling
Ham (Amateur) Radio
High definition TV
History of Google
History Of TV
Hypertext and Film
Is Reality TV an accurate portrayal of reality? COMMENT
Ithiel de Sola Pool
Jenkin's Version of Media Convergence
Meatspace & Cyberspace
Montage in Film
Nathan Marsh Breath of Sighs and Falling Forever
National Association of Broadcasters
No Electronic Theft Law (net Act) of 1997
Pandora Internet Radio
Piblic Relations Plans
The SMCR (Source-Message-Channel-Receiver) Model is a standard in communication studies. This model was originally developed by
, and then altered by David Berlo, but the latest credit has been given to
for his interactive interpretation. In the book, “Media Now: Understanding Media, Culture, and Technology,” authors Straubhaar, LaRose, and Davenport credit Schramm as being the founder of mass communications, and state that
Schramm’s Model of Communication
, or the SMCR Model, is a “classic model that stresses the dominance of the media” (Straubhaar, et. al, 18). His application of this model is most relevant to media communication studies because of its dynamic process and interchangeable roles.
The SMCR Model was designed to “describe the exchange of information as the message passes from the source to the channel to the receiver, with feedback to the source” (Straubhaar, et. al, 18). There are several components to this model. The
is the beginning of the message or communication. In an everyday example, the source would be like an advertising company. The
, or the information, would be like the commercial or magazine advertisement. These commercials or advertisements are seen through television, movie previews, radio, magazines, etc. These forms of advertisements are called
, or the means by which the message is conveyed. The
, or the end of the communication, would be considered to be the audience, the viewer, the target at which the message is planning to “attack.”
There are other important attributes to the SMCR model. These attributes are what make this model so
. Sometimes, when receiving a message, we (as the receiver) experience
. Noise is any distraction that can alter or distort the message en route. Radio static, call waiting, or loud talkers in a movie theatre are good
examples of noise in the media communication context.
is also an important component. Feedback is what normalizes the communication between the source and the receiver. Feedback usually is given by the receiver after the message from the source has been sent and received. This can be a replied e-mail, a call-in on a radio station, a response to an advertisement, etc.
are also important to this model. Encoders and decoders are just that – they take the message and interpret it. A perfect example of this would be a message being encoded by microphones or cameras and decoded by stereos and televisions.
Schramm’s version of the SMCR model was received well by most scholars, and is still used widely to this day. However, it did receive a good amount of criticism as well. Straubhaar specifically mentions the criticism made by
in 1989. Carey thought that Schramm’s model was too linear and that it completely misrepresented the “circular, interactive, or even ritual process” that takes place within communication, specifically in media (Straubhaar, et. al, 19). But, other critics say that Schramm’s model is not as linear as one thinks, but it still only includes two parties. This weakness is explained further
Straubhaar, Joseph, et al.
Media Now: Understanding Media, Culture, and Technology
. Boston: Wadsworth, 2010.
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