Cyborgs
The term cyborg was first coined in an article regarding the advantages of self-regulating human-machine systems in outer space in 1960 by Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline. But the idea of a man-machine combination was common even before WWII. In 1843 Edgar Allan Poe’s short story The Man that Was Used Up Poe illustrated a man with extensive prostheses. In 1908 maybe the first superhero, Nyctalope, was also the first literary cyborg in the novel The Man Who Can Live in Water [1].
Cyborg is seen today as an organism that has been enhanced by means of technology, but this might be oversimplifying the term. With fictional cyborgs, people are made to question the difference between human and machine. Usually these fictional cyborgs are seen as visibly mechanical and or almost impossible to differentiate from humans. The physical and mental capabilities of fictional cyborgs are also often portrayed as far exceeding that of humans. For example Robin Williams in Bicentinnial Man. Williams played a robot and he was portrayed as more intelligent than the average human being.
Real cyborgs are people who use cybernetic technology to help repair or overcome constraints of their own bodies. These constraints can be physical or mental. The term can be referred to a person with bionic or robotic implants. Otto Bock HealthCare created the C-Leg system which is used to replace a human’s leg that has been amputated. The C-Leg and the more advanced iLimb, which is used for the same function, are argued to be the first steps toward real-world cyborg applications.
Other advancements have been made such as in 2002 with British scientist Kevin Warwick and his Project Cyborg. Warwick had 100 electrodes fired into his nervous system in order to link his nervous system into the internet. He was successful with a serious of experiments with this project. Also in 2004 under the Bridging the Island of the Colorblind Project a completely colorblind artist, Neil Harbisson, has an eyeborg installed on his head in order to hear colors [2]. Small attachments with the most basic technologies can be argued to have already made many people cyborgs. For example heart pacemakers, insulin pumps, contacts or even hearing aids. These small modifications are all used to help enhance a person’s biological capabilities.

[[1 **^** //A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century// by Donna Haraway]]
[[2 http://www.harbisson.com/]]