Collage-Definition:

Collage By: Skye Gabaldon
A collage is a work of art made up of various different pieces.The individuals pieces that make up a collage are usually unified with one another on a canvas of some sort.The actual work “collage” is taken from the French word “coller”, meaning to glue. (1) Collage began with the gluing of a paper or any other object to a canvas.What makes collage different from other forms of art is that there is not a significant style or approach to the production of an artwork.
There are two artists that are credited for the origin of collage.Georgas Braque and Pablo Picasso used this form of art around the 20th century.An earlier form of collage was done by Italian artists.They put their collages together with different types of materials.They were known to put actual jewels and stones on their canvases.Picasso and Braque were inspired by the different writings and paintings of Paul Cezanne.Their style of painting reflected their influence of collage.The rhythm in their artwork went together and seemed to flow.This is much like the way of a collage.There were many different shapes and colors matched together to express a certain emotion.This abstract style later became known as analytic cubism.To give their works of art a more realistic feel, they began to include many different types of materials into their pieces.These different materials varied from hair, feathers, cloth and any other types of objects that could help portray their vision on a canvas.Collage was recognized to be a form of art during this evolution of analytic cubism to synthetic cubism.Analytical cubism tends to stress more on the shape of things as opposed to a focus on color.There was a strong focus on shapes like spheres, cylinders, and cones. These shapes were used to reflect the natural world. (2)Whereas, synthetic cubism was composed of many different colors and shapes on a canvas. (3)
There are different types of collage.It does not necessarily have to be a two-dimensional piece.The Dadaists were able to portray their feelings of society by putting together different items that were used in their everyday lives.“The Urinal” by Marcel Duchamp, was one of their famous pieces.
Today, collage is appreciated as a special form of art.This medium allows an artist to express themselves without any limitation on the materials that may be used to create their masterpiece.For this reason, many artists may find a sense of comfort in this form of art.This is one way an artist can communicate different emotions through their artwork using different items.The style of a collage will always vary depending on the artist, the mood, and the situation.


FOOTNOTES:

1. http://www.sunnyday.org/art_lesson_plans/collage_history.htm
2. http://www.lycos.com/info/cubism--analytical-cubism.html
3. http://www.lycos.com/info/cubism--synthetic-cubism.html


Collage-Famous Pieces:

Famous Collage Pieces
by: Jessica De Hoyos

Due to its history dating back hundreds of years, their have been many artists who have used this art form as a means expression over the years. Some of the more famous artists who have emerged in recognition of their collage pieces include Georges Braque, Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Romare Bearden and Shepard Fairey
Each of the artists used different materials and methods in order to create their collage art pieces. The beauty of collage, as an art form, is that it allows one to work with whatever materials he/she chooses (2).

Collage in the modernist sense began with Cubist painters Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso. . Braque took up the concept of collage itself before Picasso, applying it to charcoal drawings. One of Braque's more famous pieces is Violin and Candlestick, 1910.
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Braque: Violin and Candlestick, 1910


Picassoadopted collage immediately after, and was perhaps the first to use collage in paintings, as opposed to drawings (1). One of Picasso's more famous works includes, Friendship, 1908. Another famous piece of Picasso's was created during a time when he was depressed over a friend’s tragic death, which he entitled Blue Nude, 1902. This piece was one of many which came from his “Blue Period” artworks. These pieces displayed early evidence of his talent; and later led him to create approximately 20,000 paintings, prints, drawings and sculptures during his lifetime (4).
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Picasso: Blue Nude, 1902


Decoupage is a type of collage usually defined as a craft. It is the process of placing a picture onto an object for decoration. Decoupage can involve adding multiple copies of the same image, cut and layered to add apparent depth. The picture is often coated with varnish or some other sealant for protection (1). One of the more famous artists known for his work with decoupage is Henri Matisse's, who is very well know for his piece which is entitled Blue Nude II, 1952.
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Henri Matisse: Blue Nude II, 1952


Collage made from photographs, or parts of photographs, is called photomontage. Photomontage is the process (and result) of making a composite photograph by cutting and joining a number of other photographs (1). Romare Bearden is famous for using this method of collage in his artpieces. His method began with compositions of paper, paint, and photographs put on boards 8 1/2x11 inches. Bearden fixed the imagery with an emulsion that he then applied with a handroller. Subsequently, he enlarged the collages photographically (1). One of his more famous works includes The Calabash, 1970.
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Bearden: The Calabash, 1970



One recent piece of collage artwork which gained major popularity during Barack Obama’s 2008 Presidential campaign was created by Shepard Fairey. This is the iconic “Hope” portrait which came from a series of posters supporting Obama's 2008 candidacy for President of the United States.The famous collage of Obama looking pensively over the word “hope” is on the auction block today with a bids reaching over $80,000 (4).
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Fairey: Hope, Feb. 4, 2009

Fairey was also the man behind the “André the Giant Has a Posse” stickers that later evolved into the "Obey" street art (4).

Collage is different from other art forms because it does not dictate a particular style(2).


Footnotes:
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collage

2. http://www.sunnyday.org/art_lesson_plans/collage_history.htm

3.http://www.utne.com/2008-07-18/Arts/Yes-We-Can-Spend-80000-on-a-Collage-of-Barack-Obama.aspx

4.http://www.allposters.com/-sp/Blue-Nude-Posters_i335075_.htm

5.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shepard_Fairey


Collage-Creative Minds:


The following are several college artists throughout time that have made an impact on the creative world of collage artistry.


Pablo Picasso 1881-1973
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Picasso was one of the greatest painter and sculptor artists of the 20th century. He was born in Malaga on October 25, 1881 to the parents of José Ruiz Blasco, an art teacher and María Picasso y Lopez. He was a unique artist who innovated many different forms, styles and techniques using a variety of media.Picasso created more than 20,000 pieces of art. Some of Picasso’s pieces include the Dove of Peace, Tete de Faune en Grisaille , The Acrobat 1930 , and his most famous Science and Charity (www.famous-painters.org/.../Science-Charity.shtm) , won a gold medal.

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Mitzi Trachtenbergmitzi.JPG
Mitzi Trachtenberg was born and raised in Pittsburgh, Pa. She attended several institutes of higher education where she studied painting and design.
·California State University
1970 — 1975
·Carnegie Mellon University
BA , Fine Art Department , 1950 — 1953
Trachtenberg also attended Tyler School of Fine Art, Temple University, Philadelphia.She currently resides and practices her art in Berkeley, CA.
Current pieces Trachtenberg has worked on is “Now and Then” a college/ mixed media on paper, “Santa Maria” decollage on canvas, “Vibrations” collage/mixed media on paper, and “Old News” collage/mixed media on paper. "Now and Then" Collage/mixed media on paper.

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Jonathan Talbot
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Talbot was born in New York City to artist Helen Talbot and her husband Irwin Panken. Talbot’s mother was a huge influence on the growth and education of art as a child. She encouraged him to talk about his drawings and paintings then would critique the pieces. In 1946 Talbot attends Hessian Hills School in Croton-on-Hudson.In 1952 Talbot attends Croton-Harmon High School. In 1957 he attended Brandeis University.In 1971 Talbot begins a career as a visual artist, his works were later shown at many exhibits that following year. Talbot’s works include oils, watercolors, etchings, collages, and multi-dimensional collage-constructions. Some of his recent works are: “The Bachelors” cut paper collages 2008, “Large Patrin” 2004, and "Monument à l'Artiste Inconnu" (Monument to the Unknown Artist), Installation, 2008

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